TECHNOLOGIES FOR NUCLEAR FUSION 
Code

119325 
Language

ITA 
Type of certificate

Profit certificate

Module: TECHNOLOGIES FOR NUCLEAR FUSION Module 1 
Language

ITA 
Type of certificate

Profit certificate

Credits

5

Scientific Disciplinary Sector Code

INGIND/31

Contact Hours

40

Type of Activity

Related or supplementary learning activities

Teacher

CALABRO' Giuseppe
(syllabus)
1. INTRODUCTION AND EQUILIBRIUM CONFIGURATIONS. Introduction to energy fusion. Magnetic flux e field: normalized flux and radius coordinates. Equilibrium of an axisymmetric toroidal configuration; derivation of GradShafranov equation; plasma shape in a tokamak. 2. INTRODUCTION TO PLASMA PHYSICS. Classification of plasmas, Debye length, collisions between charged particles, collisional slowingdown, plasma resistivity. Fusion reactor scheme, power balance, Lawson criterion, Ideal ignition temperature. 3. PLASMA DIAGNOSTICS, CIRCUIT MODELS AND HEATING. General description of main plasma diagnostics. Magnetic diagnostics. Circuit models (for plasma, poloidal field coils and conducting structures); transformers; plasma current induction; magnetic flux balance; time evolution of tokamak scenarios; tokamak time scales. Introduction to plasma current, position, shape control systems: plasma radial position and current control, vertical stabilization of elongated plasma. Eddy currents and magnetic forces. Overview of Plasma Heating and Current Drive. 4. TOKAMAK LOAD ASSEMBLY: FROM CONCEPTUAL DESIGN TO REALIZATION. Introduction. Toroidal Field Coil System. Poloidal Field Coil System. Vacuum Vessel. Divertor and First Wall. Cooling. Assembly maintenance (remote handling). Supply System. 5. NEUTRONIC. Basic neutron physics and breeding concept, introduction to neutron transport, neutronics and activation calculations. Introduction to neutron sources and material damage. 6. DISRUPTIONS, VDE, PLASMA SCENARIO, MAGNETIC DIAGNOSTICS. Review of Circuit models for plasma, poloidal field coils and conducting structures, Transformers, Plasma current induction, Magnetic flux balance. Time evolution of a tokamak scenario, Tokamak time scales, Disruptions and VDE, Eddy and halo currents, DTT VDEs. MAXFEA code: equilibrium and disruptions. 7. POWER EXHAUST ISSUES: PHYSICS AND TECHNOLOGY. Fundamental physics relations in the SOL, Validating our understanding in present devices. Numerical tools, Making the step to larger devices. Design of Actively Cooled Plasma Facing Components (PFCs), thermoshydraulic design of a divertor plasma facing components. Preliminary investigation on W foams as protection strategy for advanced PFCs. 8. OVERVIEW ON TODAY POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS FOR TOKAMAKS IN VIEW OF DEMO. The Problem of Energy Resources: Nuclear Fusion Power Plant, Power Supplies & Semiconductor Devices, Diodes & Thyristors, ACDC Rectifiers, EUDEMO Fusion Power Electrical System, BalanceOfPlant (HCPB/WCLL); Major EUDEMO subsystems (lessons learnt from ITER); EU DEMO Power Demand (SSEN–PPEN) 9. OPTIMIZATION AND INVERSE PROBLEMS IN MAGNETIC FUSION RESEARCH. Optimization Problems: Modelling, Optimization, Linear Programming, Linear Programming in Matlab, Quadratic Programming, Descent Methods, Exercises. Design of high flux expansion experiments in jet tokamak via optimization of the divertor coils current 10. SUPERCONDUCTORS: THEORY AND FUSION APPLICATION. The phenomenon of superconductivity: principles, phenomenology and materials. The main applications of superconductors. The technology of superconducting magnets for nuclear fusion: ITER and DTT. 11. THE ERA OF THE ATOM: ONE CENTURY AHEAD THE BOHR MODEL (seminar). 12. ADDITIONAL HEATING SCHEMES FOR TOKAMAKS. Scope of additional heatings, additional heating techniques, NBI, ICRH, ECRH, Task for HCD systems. 13. MECHANICAL AND ELECTROMAGNETIC FEM ANALYSIS OF TOKAMAKS COMPONENTS. Mechanical analysis of superconducting magnet systems: Central Solenoid (CS), Poloidal Field (PF) coils and Toroidal Field (TF) coils (FEM strategies: issues and applications (DEMO, DTT), Steady state and transient simulations. Liquid metals as PFC. Electromagnetic analysis of magnet system and metallic components (VV, invessel coils, etc.), Steady state and transient simulationsANSYS Workbench modules, Geometry (FE Modeler/SpaceClaim), Static structural, Contacts, cyclic symmetry, submodeling. Magnetostatic. ANSYS Maxwell, Geometry, Magnetostatics analysis, Transient analysis. Exercises and final project. 14. DYNAMIC MODEL OF BALANCE OF PLANT ON SIMULINK.
(reference books)
Lecture Notes and presentations Wesson, Tokamaks, Oxford University Press Pucella, Segre, Fisica dei plasmi, Zanichelli Ariola, Pironti, Magnetic Control and Tokamak Plasmas, Springer

Dates of beginning and end of teaching activities

From to 
Delivery mode

Traditional

Attendance

not mandatory

Evaluation methods

Written test
Oral exam
A project evaluation



Module: TECHNOLOGIES FOR NUCLEAR FUSION Module 2 
Language

ITA 
Type of certificate

Profit certificate

Credits

4

Scientific Disciplinary Sector Code

INGIND/31

Contact Hours

32

Type of Activity

Related or supplementary learning activities

Teacher

CALABRO' Giuseppe
(syllabus)
1. INTRODUCTION AND EQUILIBRIUM CONFIGURATIONS. Introduction to energy fusion. Magnetic flux e field: normalized flux and radius coordinates. Equilibrium of an axisymmetric toroidal configuration; derivation of GradShafranov equation; plasma shape in a tokamak. 2. INTRODUCTION TO PLASMA PHYSICS. Classification of plasmas, Debye length, collisions between charged particles, collisional slowingdown, plasma resistivity. Fusion reactor scheme, power balance, Lawson criterion, Ideal ignition temperature. 3. PLASMA DIAGNOSTICS, CIRCUIT MODELS AND HEATING. General description of main plasma diagnostics. Magnetic diagnostics. Circuit models (for plasma, poloidal field coils and conducting structures); transformers; plasma current induction; magnetic flux balance; time evolution of tokamak scenarios; tokamak time scales. Introduction to plasma current, position, shape control systems: plasma radial position and current control, vertical stabilization of elongated plasma. Eddy currents and magnetic forces. Overview of Plasma Heating and Current Drive. 4. TOKAMAK LOAD ASSEMBLY: FROM CONCEPTUAL DESIGN TO REALIZATION. Introduction. Toroidal Field Coil System. Poloidal Field Coil System. Vacuum Vessel. Divertor and First Wall. Cooling. Assembly maintenance (remote handling). Supply System. 5. NEUTRONIC. Basic neutron physics and breeding concept, introduction to neutron transport, neutronics and activation calculations. Introduction to neutron sources and material damage. 6. DISRUPTIONS, VDE, PLASMA SCENARIO, MAGNETIC DIAGNOSTICS. Review of Circuit models for plasma, poloidal field coils and conducting structures, Transformers, Plasma current induction, Magnetic flux balance. Time evolution of a tokamak scenario, Tokamak time scales, Disruptions and VDE, Eddy and halo currents, DTT VDEs. MAXFEA code: equilibrium and disruptions. 7. POWER EXHAUST ISSUES: PHYSICS AND TECHNOLOGY. Fundamental physics relations in the SOL, Validating our understanding in present devices. Numerical tools, Making the step to larger devices. Design of Actively Cooled Plasma Facing Components (PFCs), thermoshydraulic design of a divertor plasma facing components. Preliminary investigation on W foams as protection strategy for advanced PFCs. 8. OVERVIEW ON TODAY POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS FOR TOKAMAKS IN VIEW OF DEMO. The Problem of Energy Resources: Nuclear Fusion Power Plant, Power Supplies & Semiconductor Devices, Diodes & Thyristors, ACDC Rectifiers, EUDEMO Fusion Power Electrical System, BalanceOfPlant (HCPB/WCLL); Major EUDEMO subsystems (lessons learnt from ITER); EU DEMO Power Demand (SSEN–PPEN) 9. OPTIMIZATION AND INVERSE PROBLEMS IN MAGNETIC FUSION RESEARCH. Optimization Problems: Modelling, Optimization, Linear Programming, Linear Programming in Matlab, Quadratic Programming, Descent Methods, Exercises. Design of high flux expansion experiments in jet tokamak via optimization of the divertor coils current 10. SUPERCONDUCTORS: THEORY AND FUSION APPLICATION. The phenomenon of superconductivity: principles, phenomenology and materials. The main applications of superconductors. The technology of superconducting magnets for nuclear fusion: ITER and DTT. 11. THE ERA OF THE ATOM: ONE CENTURY AHEAD THE BOHR MODEL (seminar). 12. ADDITIONAL HEATING SCHEMES FOR TOKAMAKS. Scope of additional heatings, additional heating techniques, NBI, ICRH, ECRH, Task for HCD systems. 13. MECHANICAL AND ELECTROMAGNETIC FEM ANALYSIS OF TOKAMAKS COMPONENTS. Mechanical analysis of superconducting magnet systems: Central Solenoid (CS), Poloidal Field (PF) coils and Toroidal Field (TF) coils (FEM strategies: issues and applications (DEMO, DTT), Steady state and transient simulations. Liquid metals as PFC. Electromagnetic analysis of magnet system and metallic components (VV, invessel coils, etc.), Steady state and transient simulationsANSYS Workbench modules, Geometry (FE Modeler/SpaceClaim), Static structural, Contacts, cyclic symmetry, submodeling. Magnetostatic. ANSYS Maxwell, Geometry, Magnetostatics analysis, Transient analysis. Exercises and final project. 14. DYNAMIC MODEL OF BALANCE OF PLANT ON SIMULINK.
(reference books)
Lecture Notes and presentations Wesson, Tokamaks, Oxford University Press Pucella, Segre, Fisica dei plasmi, Zanichelli Ariola, Pironti, Magnetic Control and Tokamak Plasmas, Springer

Dates of beginning and end of teaching activities

From to 
Delivery mode

Traditional

Attendance

not mandatory

Evaluation methods

Written test
Oral exam
A project evaluation



