The aim of the course is to provide the basic principles for the study of the atomic structure of matter, the conditions of formation of chemical bonds, reactivity, chemical equilibrium and properties of the main elements. Knowledge of these concepts is fundamental to undertake the study of the chemical materials characterizing the degree course. At the end of the course the student will have to show: A) to know the fundamental principles of General and Inorganic Chemistry: the structure of the atom, the properties of the elements and their ability to form compounds, molecular structures, chemical reactions, exchanges of energy, the states of the matter, the chemical kinetics, the equilibria in solution, the acid-base properties, the electrochemistry, the chemistry of the elements of the main groups B) have acquired application skills with reference to the balancing of reactions, stoichiometric calculations and solving acid-base problems, solubility product and electrochemistry C) being able to independently evaluate and resolve problems concerning course contents D) have developed a good oral and written exposition capacity of the acquired concepts E) be able to deepen the topics in different contexts and independently.
Introductory concepts. States of aggregation of the matter. Homogeneous and heterogeneous systems. Chemical substances and elements. Atomic theory of matter. Atomic properties: mass and dimensions. Scale of atomic weights. Avogadro's number, concept of mole. Chemical symbols and their quantitative meaning. Structure of the atom: Bohr model. Uncertainty principle. Wave nature of the electron. Schrodinger equation. Atomic orbitals. Quantum numbers. Electronic configuration of the elements. Aufbau rules. The periodic system of the elements. Periodic properties. The chemical bond: ionic, covalent and coordination bond. Properties of the link: order, distance and energy. Electronegativity and dipole moment. Chemical bond theory: hybrid orbitals, resonance and mesomery. Magnetic properties of molecules. Intermolecular bonds. Hydrogen bond. Chemical formulas. Nomenclature of inorganic compounds. Oxidation number. Structure of molecules and typical ions. The gaseous state: Gas laws. Equation of state for ideal gases. Real gases (outline). The solid state: crystal structures and their symmetries. Molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids. Chemical thermodynamics: Heat and work. First law of thermodynamics. Enthalpy and Hess's law. Entropy. Second law of thermodynamics. Free energy. Third principle of thermodynamics. Chemical equilibrium: criteria of spontaneity and balance in chemical reactions. Law of mass action and its derivation. Isoterma and isocora of van't Hoff. Homogeneous and heterogeneous equilibria. Solutions: Concentration and its units of measurement. Colligative properties of ideal solutions. Acid-base equilibria: General definitions. Strength of acids and bases. Structure and acid-base properties. Autoionization of water. The pH. Calculation of the pH of solutions of acids, bases and salts. Buffer solutions. Acid-base titrations and titration curves. Solubility equilibria: Solubility and factors that influence it. Solubility product. Common ion effect. Chemical kinetics: reaction rate. Arrhenius equation. Activation energy. Catalysis. Elements of inorganic chemistry: Inorganic compounds of biological and environmental interest: oxygen and ozone, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, fluorine and chlorine compounds. The course includes the performance of stoichiometric calculations related to the theoretical topics listed above.