General traits of the plant cell: structure and function of the cell wall, vacuole and plastids. Processes of water transport and absorption by the roots. Interaction among root, soil and microbes during the nutrition stages. Plants as phytoremediation. Stress physiology: drought response mechanisms and plant responses to salt stress; frostbite and heat shock. (these concepts are linked to hormonal responses such as ABA and the efficiency of photosynthesis) Chemosynthetic and photosynthetic organisms: chemosynthesis and photosynthesis. Photosynthesis: photosynthetic pigments, excitation of photosynthetic pigments, energy transfer among pigments, photochemistry, photosynthetic transport chain, ATP synthesis, regulation of the light phase, Calvin cycle, structure, catalysis and regulation of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase / oxygenase. Photorespiration, C4 photosynthesis, CAM plants. Fate of photosynthates, starch and sucrose. Translocation in the phloem. Growth and development: embryogenesis, root and shoot development, meristems. Introduction to the concept of plant hormone: synthesis and functions of hormones. Auxin: polar transport, cell distension and hypothesis of acid growth; effects on phototropism and gravitropism. Gibberellins: seeds storage mobilization and relative control of gene expression; stem growth. Cytokinins: cell division. Ethylene: fruit ripening. Abscisic acid: regulation of stomatal openings, leaf senescence. Responses to red and blue light. Photochemical and biochemical properties of phytochrome. Characteristics of the responses induced by phytochrome. Structure of the phytochrome. Photoreceptors of blue light and photophysiology of blue light responses. Circadian rhythms and flowering regulation (link with some plant hormones).