The course aims to provide the information necessary for understanding of the theoretical and experimental bases of plant genetics and breeding, both classical and modern. The knowledge acquired will allow students to obtain the main tools for operating in the field of plant breeding, particularly in the process of creating new genetic variability and selecting phenotypes of interest. Basic concepts will be explained first, such as structure and function of hereditary material, flow of genetic information, chromosomal basis of heredity, and sources of genetic variability. In the second part of the course, explanations will be given of specific aims and methods in breeding of plants with different reproductive systems, as well as of the analysis of populations genetic structure. Elements of quantitative genetics and complex traits inheritance will be provided, regarding in particular traits of agricultural interest.
1. General genetics - Introduction to genetics; biological diversity and role of organic macromolecules - Structure of genetic material (nucleic acids) and DNA replication; chromosomes and chromatin - Flow of genetic information from DNA to proteins: transcription and translation, genetic code - Gene expression regulation - Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis - Mendelian genetics and principles of trait inheritance: mono- and di-hybrid crosses, backcross, chi-square test - Genetic linkage, recombination and genetic maps - Mutations (point, chromosomal, genomic) - Genetics of quantitative traits, continuous variability, genetic and phenotypic components of variability, basis of statistical analysis. 2. Plant breeding - Introduction, origin and evolution of cultivated species, exploitation of genetic biodiversity as a source of useful genes - Methods to create new variability, inter- and intra-specific hybridization; interaction between genes, environment and phenotype - Characterization of trait polymorphism, phenotypic and genotypic selection, marker assisted selection - Reproductive systems and barriers of cultivated species - Genetic structure of populations - Methods of breeding autogamous crops - Chromosome engineering for wheat breeding - Methods of breeding allogamous crops, and vegetatively propagated crops - Integrative platforms for plant breeding - Exercises: visit to experimental fields
Russell PJ: Genetica - Un approccio molecolare, Pearson editore Barcaccia G, Falcinelli M: Genetica e Genomica. Vol. II. Miglioramento genetico. Liguori Editore S.r.l. Didactic material provided by the teacher
Dates of beginning and end of teaching activities
At a distance
Objectives of the course
Università degli Studi della Tuscia - Rettorato, Via S.M. in Gradi n.4, 01100 Viterbo, ITALY - Tel. 0761.3571