The course that Industrial Engineering students attend in the second semester of the first academic year intends to introduce the student to the principles of Mechanics, Static and Dynamics of Fluids, Oscillations and Thermodynamics, providing them with the basic knowledge of classical physics both from a theoretical point of view to the experimental one. The course has the following training objectives: - understanding of the classical mechanics of the material point; - acquisition and understanding of the laws and principles of Dynamics and statics of rigid bodies; - acquisition of laws regulating static and fluid dynamics; - understanding of oscillatory phenomena; - acquisition of the fundamental principles of thermodynamics.
1.Measurement and Vectors 2.Motion in One Dimension; Motion in two and three Dimensions 3.Newton’s Laws and their applications 4.Work and Kinetic Energy 5.The Conservation of Energy 6.Conservation of Linear Momentum 7.Rotation 8.Angular Momentum 9.Gravity 10.Static Equilibrium and Elasticity 11. Fluids 12.Oscillations; Traveling Waves;Superposition and Standing Waves 13.Temperature and the Kinetic Theory of Gases 14.Heat and the First Law of Thermodynamics 15.The Second Law of Thermodynamics
Detailed Program of the course: Measurement units. International System. Conversions between units of measure. Laws of motion in one dimension: position, average speed, instantaneous speed. Average and instantaneous acceleration. Uniformly accelerated motion. Vectors and their properties. Components of a vector. Versors. Motion in two dimensions: vector position, displacement, average speed. Instantaneous speed, average acceleration, instant acceleration. Circular motion kinematics: centripetal and tangential acceleration. Examples. Relative speed.
First law of dynamics, inertial reference systems. Principle of dynamics. Third Principle of Dynamics. Gravitational force. Inertial mass and gravitational mass. Normal reaction. Elastic force. Motion in fluid: resistance and limit speed. Dynamics of circular motion: centripetal force.
Work. Scalar product between two vectors. Kinetic energy theorem. Work of elastic force. Power. Conservative forces. Potential energy: gravitational and elastic potential energy. Non-conservative forces. Principle of mechanical energy conservation. Work of friction force and thermal energy.
Material Point Systems: Mass Center Definition. Determination of mass center for discrete and continuous systems. Linear momentum of a material point and a system of material points. The first cardinal equation of dynamics. Law of momentum conservation. Kinetic energy of a material point system: Konig theorem.
Impulse and impulse theorem. Elastic and inelastic collisions and examples. Rotation. Kinetic energy of a rotating body. Moment of inertia for discrete system of material points and continuous systems. Huygens-Steiner Theorem. Newton's second law for rotations. Moment of force. Examples and applications. Second cardinal equation of dynamics. Conservation of the angular momentum.
Oscillations. Period, frequency. Simple harmonic oscillator: general solution, period of harmonic oscillator simple. Examples. Simple harmonic motion and circular motion. Energy in simple harmonic motion. Examples of oscillating systems. Energy in the harmonic oscillator. Merit Factor. Examples. Forced oscillator and resonance. Young module. Fluids: density, surface volume forces, pressure. Stevino's Law. Pascal's principle, hydraulic jack. The Torricelli barometer for the measurement of atmospheric pressure. The pressure gauge. Archimedes Principle. Fluid dynamics: mass flow, volume flow, continuity equation. Bernoulli's theorem. Particular cases of Bernoulli's Theorem. Fluids: viscosity, Poiseuille law. Rolling and turbulent motion: Reynolds number. Surface tension, adhesion coefficient, concave and convex meniscus, contact angle.
Elastic waves. Transverse waves and longitudinal waves. Wave Equation. Speed of propagation of a wave. Propagation speed of a sound wave. Periodic waves. Wavelength, frequency, period, wave number, pulsation. Energy carried by a wave. Longitudinal sound waves. Energy of a sound wave. Waves in three dimensions: wavefront and spherical waves. Intensity. Waves and obstacles: Reflection, transmission and refraction. Interference. Doppler effect. Stationary waves. Thermal equilibrium and temperature: zero principle of thermodynamics. Centigrade thermometer, gas thermometers and absolute temperature. The perfect gas state equation. Kinetic gas theory: gas pressure, microscopic temperature interpretation, energy equalization theorem.
Thermal capacity and specific heat. Status changes and latent heat. First principle of thermodynamics. Internal energy of a perfect gas. Thermodynamic transformations. Quasi-static and balance state transformations. Work and PV diagram for a gas: PV diagrams. Specific gases of perfect gases: specific heat at constant volume and constant pressure. Specific heat and energy equalization theorem.
Thermal machines and second thermodynamic principle: Kelvin statement, Clausius statement. Refrigerant machines according to the principle of thermodynamics. Equivalence of the two statements. Carnot Machine. Absolute temperature scale. Irreversibility, disorder and entropy. Entropy of a perfect gas. Entropy variations for some transformations. Entropy and second principle of thermodynamics. Consider the microscopic meaning of entropy.
Statistic and uncertain theory. Casual and systematic errors. Experimental errors as measurement uncertainties. Uncertainty representation. Significant figures . Comparison between measured values and accepted values. Comparison between two measurements. Relative and absolute errors. Uncertainties in the direct measurements. Uncertainties in the product and ratio. Propagation error formula. Mean and standard deviation. Histogram and limit distribution. Normal distribution. Interpretation of standard deviation in terms of confidence of 68. Justification of using the mean value as better value. Linear correlation coefficient.
The following Physical Laboratory experiences (mandatory) exercises are also provided: -measurement of the elastic constant of a spring; -measurement of the oscillation period of a pendulum; - measurement of the density of a body; - measurement of the specific heat of a body.
P.A. Tipler, G. Mosca, “Corso di Fisica: Meccanica, Onde, Termodinamica”, ed Zanichelli. J.R. Taylor, “Introduzione all'analisi degli errori. Lo studio delle incertezze nelle misure fisiche”, ed Zanichelli.
Dates of beginning and end of teaching activities
From 21/02/2022 to 31/05/2022
Objectives of the course
Università degli Studi della Tuscia - Rettorato, Via S.M. in Gradi n.4, 01100 Viterbo, ITALY - Tel. 0761.3571