MOSESSO Pasquale

Professore Associato 
Scientific Disciplinary Sector Code  (BIO/18)
University Università degli Studi della TUSCIA 
College/Department Department  DEB - Dipartimento di Scienze Ecologiche e Biologiche 

Reception times

Martedì e Venerdì ore 10-12 (ufficio c/o "edificio vecchio" ex-Agraria).
Per comunicazioni urgenti: GSM 3402780395; e-mail:


SHORT CURRICULUM VITAE Surname: Mosesso Last name: Pasquale Academic address : Università degli Studi della Tuscia Dipartimento di Scienze Ecologiche e Biologiche Largo dell’Università s.n.c. 01100 Viterbo Italy Telephone : ++39 0761 357205 Fax : ++39 0761 357242 E-mail : Citizenship : Italian Date of birth : 10th November 1954 Present position : Associate Professor of Genetics (chairs of Genetics and Environmental Mutagenesis), Department of Ecological and Biological Sciences, Università degli Studi della Tuscia, I-01100 Viterbo, Italy. His areas of interests are cytogenetics, molecular toxicology, molecular mechanisms of mutagenesis and chromosomal damage, DNA repair, biological dosimetry for ionising radiations using molecular cytogenetic techniques (FISH), human biomonitoring, ecotoxicology, toxicological risk analysis from hazard identification, dose-response assessment and exposure assessment in order to provide an estimation of the incidence and severity of adverse effects likely to occur in a human population in relation to actual or eventual exposure to hazardous compounds mainly in the area of “food safety”. TRAINING and CAREER • 1978 Graduate Degree in Biological Sciences, University of Rome “La Sapienza”, Rome, Italy. • 1978 Visitor in the Department of Radiobiology and Radiogenetics, University of Zurich, (Switzerland). Detection of chromosomal aberrations induced by ionising radiation in the G2 phase of cell-cycle using autoradiographic methods. Participation at the International Course organized by the European Molecular Biology Organisation (EMBO) “Lymphocyte Stimulation: Biochemical and Immunological Processes; Differential Sensitivity to Radiation”, Frascati (Rome), Italy. • 1979 Visitor in the Department of Radiation Genetics and Chemical Mutagenesis, University of Rome “La Sapienza”. Mechanisms of formation of chromosomal aberrations using cytogenetic methods. Development of short-term mutagenicity assays to detect chemical carcinogens. • 1980 Group-Leader of the Cytogenetic Section, Department of Mutagenesis, Life Science Research Roma Toxicology Centre Pomezia (Rome), Italy a Contract Research Laboratory for non-clinical studies working in “Good Laboratory Practices” (GLP’s) at international level. • 1991 Permanent position as Scientist, Department of Agrobiology and Agrochemistry, University of Tuscia, Viterbo, Italy, working mainly in cytogenetics, molecular toxicology, molecular mechanisms of mutagenesis and chromosomal damage, biological dosimetry for ionising radiations using molecular cytogenetic techniques (FISH), influence of microgravity on the induction of chromosomal aberrations induced by ionising radiations in the space, human biomonitoring and food safety. • 1992 Participation at the International Course “Current Techniques in Radiation Mutagenesis” organized by the European Union (Nuclear Safety/Radiation Protection Programs), University of Leiden (The Netherlands). • 1994 Permanent position as Scientist and Lecturer of Environmental Mutagenesis and Genetics Courses in the Faculties of Biological Sciences and Environmental Sciences of the University of Tuscia, Viterbo, Italy. • 2001 Permanent position as Associate Professor of Genetics (chairs of Genetics and Environmental Mutagenesis), Faculties of Biological Sciences and Environmental Sciences, University of Tuscia, Viterbo, Italy. • 2011 Appointed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) as External Expert in Genetic Toxicology in the Food Ingredients and Packaging Unit (FIP) for the period 2011-2014 and 2014-2017 in the Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS), to carry out risk assessments in order to produce scientific opinions and advice for risk managers on the safety of food additives. He has been or he is currently involved as a Member in the following: • Genotoxicity ad hoc Working Group of the CEF Panel (FIP unit); • Working Group 'A' Food additives and nutrient sources (FIP unit); • Working Group on 'Guidance on Food additives' (FIP unit); • Working Group on Aspartame (FIP unit); • Working Group on Bisphenol A of the CEF Panel (FIP unit); • Working Group on Isoflavones (FIP unit); • Working Group on Enzymes 2012-2015 (FEEDAP Panel); • Standing Working Group on Procedures under Article 8 of Regulation (EC) No 1925/2006 of the ANS Panel (FIP unit); • Working Group on Gums and Food Additives from Natural Sources of the ANS Panel (FIP unit); • Working Group on Food Additives Other than Gums of the ANS Panel (FIP unit); • Standing Working Group on Genotoxicity of the EFSA Scientific Committee; 2016 Appointed in the roster of experts to serve on the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) for the period 2016-2021. JECFA is an international scientific expert committee that is administered jointly by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO). It has been meeting since 1956, initially to evaluate the safety of food additives. Its work now also includes the evaluation of contaminants, naturally occurring toxicants and residues of veterinary drugs in food. The risk assessment of chemicals in food is a multi-disciplinary activity, requiring several different disciplines and expertise depending on the tasks at hand. Each time a JECFA meeting is organized, experts are selected from the JECFA roster by the Secretariat according to the expertise needed and a balance of scientific views and other experience that are essential for the evaluation of the items on the agenda of the meeting. 2018 Currently involved as Temporary Adviser in the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) for risk assessment of food additives, natural extracts, flavours enzymes etc. RESEARCH ACCOMPLISHMENTS • Studies on mechanisms of formation of chromosomal aberrations by chemical carcinogens and ionizing radiation using special experimental tools such as inhibitors of DNA topoisomerase I and II, inhibitors of DNA repair and DNA synthesis in mammalian cells coming from “normal” individuals and from individuals with known genetic syndromes which affect the efficiency and reliability of DNA repair systems. • Development and validation of short-term mutagenicity assays for detection of chemical carcinogens such as in vivo and in vitro cytogenetic assays. Attention is also devoted to the identification of established cell lines with endogenous metabolic capability. He is also directly involved in the standardisation of genotoxicity test procedures and harmonisation of guidelines. • Biological dosimetry for radiological protection using conventional cytogenetic methods (dicentrics) and molecular cytogenetic methods (FISH techniques and chromosome painting). • Radiation biology in space: Evaluation of the effect of microgravity under simulated or in the space, on the induction of chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocytes. • Cytogenetic biomonitoring of human populations exposed to chemical and physical pollutants. • Evaluation of the impact of chemical and physical contaminants on the integrity and functionality of DNA in native species (sentinel organisms) by use of different biomarkers of exposure and effect (Comet assay, micronuclei, chromosomal aberrations) in fishes, gastropods, molluscs, rodents or plants (Allium cepa, Vicia faba) to estimate early signs of damage, which allows the development of strategies to prevent detrimental ecological consequences. • International collaboration on funded E.U. Research Projects related to genotoxicity of food contaminants (e.g. mycotoxins, acrylammide, furan etc.). He is actively participating at national and international meetings for Genetics, Environmental Mutagenesis and Toxicology and directly involved in numerous EU funded research projects. He is acting as Reviewer in many International Journals which include: • BioMed Research International; • •Current Medicinal Chemistry; • •DNA Repair; • •Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis; • •Environmental Science & Technology; • •Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology; • •International Immunopharmacology; • •International Journal of Molecular Sciences; • •European Journal of Nutrition; • •Molecular Genetics and Metabolism; • •Molecular Nutrition and Food Research; • •Mutation Research: Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis; • •Mutation Research: Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis; • •Nanotoxicology; • •Neuroscience Letters; • •PLOS ONE; • •Tissue and Cell; • •Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology; • •Toxicology Letters; • •Toxins; • •Vaccine;   Major Scientific Publications 1. Mosesso P., Piane M., Pepe G., Cinelli S., Chessa L. (2018). Modulation of hypersensitivity to oxidative DNA damage in ATM defective cells induced by potassium bromate by inhibition of the Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Mutat. Res. Gen. Tox. En. 836, 117-123. 2. Bartzoka E.D., Lange H., Mosesso P., Crestini C. (2017). Synthesis of nano- and microstructures from proanthocyanidins, tannic acid and epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate for active delivery. Green Chemistry 19, 5074-5091. 3. Mosesso P., Cinelli S. (2017). In vivo cytogenetic assay. In: Mutagenicity: Assays and Applications 1st Edition, 93-111, ISBN: 9780128092521. 4. Saladino R., Chiocchini U., Botta G., Delfino M., Conigliaro R., Mosesso P (2016). Free radical scavenging capacity and protective effect of natural substances in peloids from the thermal spring pool Bagnaccio (Viterbo, Italy). Journal of Cosmetic Science, 67, 71-92. 5. Mosesso P, Pepe G, Ottavianelli A, Schinoppi A, Cinelli S (2015). Cytogenetic evidence that DNA topoisomerase II is not involved in radiation induced chromosome-type aberrations. Mutat. Res. Gen. Tox. En. 793, 14-18. 6. Bizzarri BM, Pieri C, Botta G, Arabuli L, Mosesso P, Cinelli S, Schinoppi A, Saladino R (2015). Synthesis and antioxidant activity of DOPA peptidomimetics by a novel IBX mediated aromatic oxidative functionalization. Rsc Advances 5, 60354-60364. 7. Sebbio C., Carere C., Nascetti G., Bellisario B., Mosesso P., Cimmaruta R., Angeletti, D. (2014). Interspecies variation in DNA damage induced by pollution. Current Zoology 60, 308-321. 8. Tortora M., Cavalieri F., Mosesso P., Ciaffardini F., Melone F., Crestini C. (2014). Ultrasound driven assembly of lignin into microcapsules for storage and delivery of hydrophobic molecules. Biomacromolecules 15, 1634-1643. 9. Probert P.M., Chung G.W., Cockell S.J., Agius L., Mosesso P., White S.A., Oakley F., Brown C.D., Wright M.C. (2014). Utility of B-13 Progenitor-Derived Hepatocytes in Hepatotoxicity and Genotoxicity Studies. Toxicological Sciences 137, 350-370. 10. Mosesso P., Cinelli S., Natarajan A.T and Palitti F (2013). In vitro cytogenetic assays: Chromosomal aberrations and micronucleus tests. In: Genotoxicity assessment. Methods in Molecular Biology 1044, 123-146; 11. Pepe G., Grossi M.R., Berni A., Filippi S., Shanmugakani R.K., Papeschi C., Mosesso P., Natarajan A.T., Palitti F (2013). Effect of blueberries (BB) on micronuclei induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) in mammalian cells, assessed in in vitro and in vivo assays. Mutat. Res. Gen. Tox. En. 758, 6-11. 12. Angeletti D., Sebbio C., Carere C., Cimmaruta R., Nascetti G., Pepe G., Mosesso P. (2013) Terrestrial gasteropods (Helix spp) as sentinels of primary DNA damage for biomonitoring purposes: a validation study. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 54, 204-12. 13. Grossi M.R., Berni A., Pepe G., Filippi S., Mosesso P., Shivnani A.A., Papeschi C., Natarajan A.T., Palitti F. (2012) A comparative study of the anticlastogenic effects of chlorophyllin on N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) or 7,12-dimethylbenz (α) anthracene (DMBA) induced micronuclei in mammalian cells in vitro and in vivo. Toxicol. Lett. 214, 235-42. 14. Mosesso P., Bohm L., Pepe G., Fiore M., Carpinelli A., Gäde G., Nagini S., Ottavianelli A., Degrassi F. (2012) Cytogenetic analyses of Azadirachtin reveal absence of genotoxicity but marked antiproliferative effects in human lymphocytes and CHO cells in vitro. Toxicol. Lett. 213, 361-6. 15. Neuwirth C., Mosesso P., Pepe G., Fiore M., Malfatti M., Turteltaub K., Dekant W., Mally A. (2012) Furan carcinogenicity: DNA binding and genotoxicity of furan in rats in vivo. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 56, 1363-74. 16. Pasquale Mosesso, Dario Angeletti, Gaetano Pepe, Carlo Pretti, Giuseppe Nascetti, Raffaela Bellacima, Roberta Cimmaruta and Awadhesh N. Jha (2012) The use of cyprinodont fish, Aphanius fasciatus as a sentinel organism to detect complex genotoxic mixtures in the coastal lagoon ecosystem. Mutat. Res. 742, 31-36. 17. Kristin Czakai, Katja Müller, Pasquale Mosesso, Gaetano Pepe, Markus Schulze, Antje Gohla, Debasis Patnaik, Wolfgang Dekant, Jonathan M.G. Higgins, and Angela Mally (2011) Perturbation of mitosis through inhibition of histone acetyltransferases: the key to ochratoxin A toxicity and carcinogenicity? Toxicol. Sci. 122, 317-29. 18. Pasquale Mosesso, Fabrizio Palitti, Gaetano Pepe, Joaquin Piñero, Raffaella Bellacima, Gunnar Ahnstrom, Adayapalam T. Natarajan (2010). Relationship between chromatin structure, dna damage and repair following x-irradiation of human lymphocytes. Mutat. Res. 701, 86-91. 19. Bernini R., Barontini M., Mosesso P., Pepe G., Willför S.M., Sjöholm R.E., Eklund P.C., Saladino R. (2009). A selective de-O-methylation of guaiacyl lignans to corresponding catechol derivatives by 2-iodoxybenzoic acid (IBX). The role of the catechol moiety on the toxicity of lignans. Org. Biomol. Chem. 7, 2367-77. 20. Pasquale Mosesso, Serena Cinelli, Joaquin Piñero, Raffaela Bellacima, Gaetano Pepe (2008) In vitro cytogenetic results supporting a DNA nonreactive mechanism for ochratoxin A, potentially relevant for its carcinogenicity. Chem. Res. Toxicol. 21, 1235–1243. 21. Claudia Lorenti Garcia, Silvia Filippi, Pasquale Mosesso, Menotti Calvani, Raffaella Nicolai, Luigi Mosconi and Fabrizio Palitti (2006) The protective effect of L-Carnitine in peripheral blood human lymphocytes exposed to oxidative agents. Mutagenesis 20, 12-19. 22. Mally A., Pepe G., Ravoori S., Fiore M., Gupta R.C., Dekant W., Mosesso P. (2005) Ochratoxin A causes DNA damage and cytogenetic effects but no DNA adducts in rats. Chem. Res. Toxicol. 18, 1253-61. 23. Mosesso P., Piane M., Palitti F., Pepe G., Penna S., Chessa L., (2005) The novel human gene aprataxin is directly involved in DNA single-strand-break repair. Cell Mol. Life Sci. 62, 485-491. 24. Saladino R., Fiani C., Belfiore M.C., Gualandi G., Penna S., Mosesso P. (2005) Methyltrioxorhenium catalysed synthesis of highly oxidised aryltetralin lignans with anti-topoisomerase II and apoptogenic activities. Bioorg. Med. Chem. 13, 5949-60. 25. Mosesso P., Penna S., Pepe G., Lorenti-Garcia C., Palitti F. (2004) Potassium bromate but not X-rays cause unexpectedly elevated levels of DNA breakage similar to those induced by ultraviolet light in Cockayne syndrome (CS-B) fibroblasts. Cytogenet. Genome Res. 104, 178-181. 26. Salvatore Motta, Concetta Federico, Salvatore Saccone, Vito Librando and Pasquale Mosesso (2004) Cytogenetic evaluation of extractable agents from airborne particulate matter generated in the city of Catania (Italy). Mutat. Res. 561, 45-52. 27. Bonassi S., Neri M., Lando C., Ceppi M., Lin Y.P., Chang W.P., Holland N., Kirsch-Volders M., Zeiger E., Fenech M., Ban S., Barale R., Bigatti M.P., Bolognesi C., Jia C., Di Giorgio M., Ferguson L.R., Fucic A., Hrelia P., Krishnaja A.P., Lee T.K., Migliore L., Mikhalevich L., Mirkova E., Mosesso P., Müller W., Odagiri Y., Scarfi M.R., Szabova E., Vorobtsova I., Vral A., Zijno A. (2003). Effect of smoking habit on the frequency of micronuclei in human lymphocytes: Results from the Human MicroNucleus project. Mutation Research. Reviews in Mutation Research, 543, 155-166; 28. Biondi O., Motta S., Mosesso P. (2002) Low molecular weight polyethylene glycol induces chromosome aberrations in Chinese hamster cells cultured in vitro. Mutagenesis 17, 261-264. 29. Bonassi S., Fenech M., Lando C., Lin Y.P., Ceppi M., Chang W.P., Holland N., Kirsh-Volders M., Zeiger E., Ban S., Barale R., Bigatti M.P., Bolognesi C., Jia C., Di Giorgio M., Ferguson L.R., Fucic A., Lima O.G., Hrelia P., Krishnaja A.P., Lee T.K., Migliore L., Mikhalevich L., Mirkova E., Mosesso P., Muller WU., Odagiri Y., Scarffì MR., Szabova E., Vorobtsova I., Vral A., Zijno A., (2001) HUman MicroNucleus project: International Database Comparison for Results with the Cytokinesis-block Micronucleus Assay in Human Lymphocytes: I. Effect of laboratory protocol, scoring criteria, and host factors on the frequency of micronuclei. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 37, 31-45. 30. Gualandi G., Giselico L., Carboni M., Palitti F., Mosesso P., Alfonsi A.M. (2001) Enhancement of genetic instability in human B cells by Epstein-Barr virus latent infection. Mutagenesis 16, 203-208. 31. Mosesso P., Schuber M., Seibt D., Schmitz C., Fiore M., Schinoppi A., Penna S., Palitti F. (2001) X-ray-induced chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes in vitro are potentiated under simulated microgravity conditions (Clinostat). Phys. Med. 17, 264-266. 32. Pichierri Pietro, Franchitto Annapaola, Mosesso Pasquale and Palitti Fabrizio (2001) Werner’s syndrome protein is required for correct recovery after replication arrest and DNA damage induced in S-phase of cell cycle. Mol. Biol. Cell 12, 1-10. 33. Franchitto A., Pichierri P., Mosesso P. and Palitti F., (2000) Catalytic inhibition of topoisomerase II in Werner’s syndrome cell lines enhances chromosomal damage induced by X-rays in the G2 phase of cell cycle. Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 76, 913-922. 34. Mosesso P., Pichierri P., Franchitto A. and Palitti F., (2000) Evidence that camptothecin-induced aberrations in the G2 phase of cell cycle of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines is associated with transcription. Mutat. Res. 452, 189-195 35. Pichierri P., Franchitto A., Mosesso P., Palitti F. (2000) Werner’s syndrome cell lines are hypersensitive to camptothecin-induced chromosomal damage. Mutat. Res. 456, 45-57. 36. Pichierri P., Franchitto A., Mosesso P., Proietti de Santis, Balajee A.S., Palitti F. (2000) Werner’s syndrome lymphoblastoid cells are hypersensitive to topoisomerase II inhibitors in the G2 phase of the cell cycle. Mutat. Res. 459, 123-133. 37. Franchitto A., Proietti de Santis L., Pichierri P., Mosesso P. and Palitti F., (1999) Lack of effect of caffeine post-treatment on X-rays chromosomal aberrations in Werner's syndrome lymphoblastoid cell lines: A preliminary report. Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 75, 1349-1355. 38. Mosesso P., Fonti E., Bassi L., Lorenti-Garcia C. and Palitti F. (1999) The conversion of camptothecin-induced DNA single strand breaks into chromosome aberrations in G0 human lymphocytes as detected by premature chromosome condensation (PCC) technique, is possibly associated with chromatin condensation. Mutagenesis 14, 103-105. 39. Palitti F., Pichierri P., Franchitto A., Proietti De Santis L. and Mosesso P. (1999) Chromosome radiosensitivity in human G2 lymphocytes and cell cycle progression. Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 75, 621-627. 40. Bassi L., Palitti F., Mosesso P. and Natarajan A.T. (1998) Distribution of camptothecin-induced breakpoints in Chinese hamster cells treated in late S and G2 phases of the cell cycle. Mutagenesis 13, 257-261. 41. Franchitto P., Pichierri P., Mosesso P. and Palitti F (1998) Caffeine effect on the mitotic delay induced by G2 treatment with UVC or mitomycin-C. Mutagenesis 13, 499-505. 42. Mosesso P., Darroudi F., Van der Berg M., Vermeulen S., Palitti F. and Natarajan A.T. (1998) Induction of chromosomal aberrations (unstable and stable) by inhibitors of topoisomerase II, m-AMSA and VP16, using conventional Giemsa staining and chromosome painting techniques. Mutagenesis 13, 39-43. 43. Mosesso P., Schuber M., Seibt D., Schatz A., Fosci A., Fonti E. and Palitti F. (1998) Evaluation of bleomycin-induced chromosome aberrations under simulated microgravity conditions in human lymphocytes, using “FISH” techniques. Acta Astronautica 42, 473-488. 44. Gribaldo L., Bueren J., Deldar A., Hokland P., Meredith C., Moneta D., Mosesso P., Parchment R., Parent-Massin D., Pessina A., San Roman J. and Schoeters G. (1995) The use of in vitro systems for evaluating haematotoxicity. ATLA (Alternatives to Laboratory Animals) 24, 211-231. 45. Rueff J. Chiapella C., Chipman J.K., Darroudi F., Duarte Silva I., Duverger-van Bogaert M., Fonti E., Glatt H.R., Isern P., Laires A., Leonard A., Llagostera M., Mosesso P., Natarajan A.T., Palitti F., Rodriguez A.S., Schinoppi A., Turchi G., Werle-Schneider G. (1996) Development and validation of alternative metabolic systems for mutagenicity testing in short-term assays. Mutat. Res. 353, 151-176. 46. Caruso, P., Andreozzi L., Motta, S. and Mosesso P. (1995) Cytogenetic effects of a naturally occurring ice-nucleation-inactive (non-INA) Pseudomonas fluorescence bacteria strain in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Teratog. Carcinog. Mutag. 15, 103-108. 47. Galloway, S.M., Aardema, M.J., Ishidate, M.Jr., Ivett, J.L., Kirkland, D.J., Morita, T., Mosesso, P. and Sofuni, T. (1994) International Workshop on Standardisation of Genotoxicity Test Procedures. Report from Working Group on in vitro Tests for Chromosomal Aberrations. Mutation Research 312, 241-261. 48. Mosesso P., Turchi, G., Cinelli, S., Di Chiara, D., Fiore, M. and Palitti, F. (1994) Clastogenic effects of the dithiocarbamate fungicides thiram and ziram in Chinese hamster cell lines cultured in vitro. Teratog. Carcinog. Mutag. 14, 145-155. 49. Mosesso P. and Palitti F. (1993) The genetic toxicology of 6-Mercaptopurine. Mutat. Res. 296, 279-294. 50. Romero A., Palacin C., Mosesso P., Hodson-Walker G., Marcos R., Batiste-Alentorn M., Villamayor F, Sacristàn A. and Ortiz J.A. (1992) Genotoxicity studies on sertaconazole. Arzneimittelforschung 42, 743-745. 51. Forster, R., Campana, A., D’Onofrio, E., Henderson, L., Mosesso, P. and Scorza-Barcellona (1990) Lonidamine: a non-mutagenic antitumor agent. Carcinogenesis 11, 1509-1515. 52. Seeberg A.H., Mosesso P., Forster R. (1988) High-dose-level effects in mutagenicity assays utilising mammalian cells in culture. Mutagenesis 3, 213-218. 53. Davis A., Barale R., Brun G., Forster R., Guenther T., Hautefeuille H., Van der Heijden C.A., Knaap A.G.A.C., Krowke R., Kuroki T., Loprieno N., Malaveille C., Merker H.J., Monaco M., Mosesso P., Neubert D., Norppa H., Sorsa M., Vogel E., Voogd C.E. Umeda M. and Bartsch H. (1987) Evaluation of the genetic and embriotoxic effects of bis(tri-n-butyltin) oxide (TBTO), a broad-spectrum pesticide, in multiple in vivo and in vitro short-term tests. Mutat. Res. 188, 65-95. 54. Barale R., Rusciano D., Stretti G., Zucconi D., Monaco M., Mosesso P., Principe P. (1983) The induction of forward gene mutation and gene conversion in yeasts by treatment with cyclophosphamide in vitro and in vivo. Mutat. Res. 111, 295-312.