The course introduces the concepts and the experimental approaches of organic chemistry, working on the consolidation of principles acquired in the field of physics and general and inorganic chemistry to advance the knowledge of carbon chemistry. In the first part of the course, the cultural and practical bases for understanding the structure of organic molecules will be provided, paying particular attention to the existing relationships between the chemical structure and the chemical-physical and biological properties associated with them. The different physical hybridization states of the carbon will allow the three-dimensional vision of the molecules, facilitating the understanding of their role in the cell. The second part of the course is dedicated to the application of properties in the context of chemical reactivity. The student will have the opportunity to have answers to some of the key questions in his study: why do molecules react? What are the experimental factors that control the kinetics of the reactions? When is a reaction under thermodynamic control rather than kinetic? How is it possible to synthesize complex molecules from simple reagents? What is the impact of organic chemistry on the environment and how can it be reduced? This knowledge will allow the student to undertake subsequent study courses with strong structural and molecular expertise.
B) EXPECTED LEARNING RESULTS Knowledge of the principles governing the formation of the chemical bond, using traditional theories (valence bond theory) and advanced theories (theory of molecular orbital and quantum mechanics ). Knowledge of nomenclature and classification (theory of functional groups) of organic molecules, with particular attention to the association between the family of organic molecules and biological and chemical-physical properties. Knowledge of the reactivity of organic molecules and experimental parameters capable of controlling thermodynamics and kinetics of organic transformations. Knowledge of the relationship between organic molecules and the origin of life.
In addition to the knowledge gained through the study of organic chemistry, students will be able to apply the acquired concepts for the resolution of practical exercises related to the identification and classification of substances based on Their activity on the body, the effect of chirality on pharmacological activity, the possibility of separating organic isomers and the general methodologies for their analysis and their recognition.
Making judgments: The course offers links to other disciplines (Physics, General Chemistry, Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Computational Chemistry and Genetics) by providing an integrated knowledge. The student's critical judgment will be stimulated by constantly referring to the reading of recent studies published in scientific journals, questioning the current issues related to some of the core concepts of the discipline. Thanks to the multi-disciplinary and interdisciplinary nature of organic chemistry, it will be also possible to link the acquired concepts to other disciplines, allowing the student to form his own autonomy of judgment about the effectiveness of an integrated scientific approach.
Communication skills: At the end of each part of the course, the students will be invited to form working groups to develop solutions and compete with others in solving practical exercises. The educational gain is aimed at increasing the communication skills and the ability to know how to work in a group, all aimed at consolidating the acquired concepts.
Learning Skills: Students' learning abilities will be evaluated during the course of the course by exonerary tests that will allow you to individually monitor the maturation state of the knowledge, highlighting the student's ability to return.
Module A STRUCTURE Alkanes and cycloalkanes. Introduction. Structure. Sp3 hybridization. Nomenclature. Physical Properties. Isomerism of structure. Conformational analysis (ethane, cyclohexane). Stability of cycloalkanes (angle strain, torsional strain, tension steric). Derivatives of cyclohexane (stereoisomery cis-trans). Bicyclic alkanes and polycyclic. Natural role and applications of alkanes.
Alkenes. Introduction .. Structure. Sp2 hybridization. Nomenclature. Physical Properties. Stability (heat of hydrogenation, heat of combustion). Nomenclature system (E) - (Z) for alkenes. Cicloalcheni.Funzione biological.
Functional groups and classes of organic compounds. Alkyl halides. Alcohols. Ethers. Amines. Aldehydes and ketones. Carboxylic acids. Esters and amides. Introduction. Structure. Nomenclature. Physical Properties.
Stereochemistry. Introduction. Chirality of carbon. Enantiomers and chiral molecules. Graphical representation. Nomenclature (R) (S). Optical activity (specific optical rotation, definition of racemate, optical purity). Diastereoisomers (meso compounds). Chiral molecules without chiral carbons.
Aromatic compounds. Introduction. Benzene. Structure and stability. Huckel rule. Other aromatic compounds. Nomenclature of benzene derivatives. Induction phenomena and resonance. Heterocyclic aromatic compounds. The aromatic compounds in biochemistry.
Carbohydrates. Classification. Monosaccharides. Mutarotation and formation of glucosides. Configuration D or L. Disaccharides. Polysaccharides.
Protein. Structure of the amino acids. Nomenclature. Peptide bond. Oligopeptides.
Nucleic acids. Purine and pyrimidine nucleic bases. Nucleosides. Nucleotides. Oligonucleotides.
Form B. THE REACTIVITY '
Reactions of alkanes and cycloalkanes. Chlorination of methane. Free radicals. Stability and structure. Thermodynamics and kinetics. Halogenation of higher alkanes.
Ionic reactions of substitution and elimination. Formation of carbocations. Stability and structure. Nucleophilic substitution reactions. SN2 reaction. SN1 reaction. Mechanisms and trends stereochimici.Effetti solvent and leaving group. Elimination reactions. E1 reaction. E2 reaction. Competition between substitution and elimination. Substitution reactions and elimination of biological interest.
Reactions of the C = C double bond. Addition reaction. Addition of hydrogen halides. Markovnikov rule.