From the structure of the atom to chemical bonds, ionic, covalent, dative and metallic bonds (outline). Intermolecular bonds. Hydrogen bonds. Main inorganic compounds. Mole concept. Minimum and molecular formula. Chemical reactions. Limiting reagent. Concepts of oxidation and reduction. Balancing chemical equations. Concentrations. Aeriforms, ideal gas model and its main laws. Critical temperature and distinction between gas and vapors. Thermodynamics: system and environment, I and II principles, thermodynamic functions U, H, S, G. Reaction rate. Chemical equilibrium, homogeneous, heterogeneous. Equilibrium constant and its expressions. State of matter and interconversions. Colligative properties. Solubility equilibria. Acids and bases. Acid-base equilibria and pH, strong and weak electrolytes. pH of strong acids and bases, pH of weak acids and bases and of saline solutions. Buffers: their constitution, their pH, and their purpose.
Introductory notions and framework of Chemistry in relation to other scientific disciplines. Matter, its essential constituents, chemical elements, molecules, pure substances, homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures. Measurements and properties of substances. Atomic theory. Bohr model. Quantum-mechanical model. Quantum numbers. Atomic orbitals, meaning and geometric representation. Aufbau principle. Periodic system. Periodic properties of the elements: atomic and ionic radii, ionization potentials, electron affinity, electronegativity. Atoms, atomic number, mass number, isotopes. Radioactivity and radioactive decay, outline. Molecules and ions.
Chemical bond Ionic bond. Covalent bond, dative; simple, double, triple bonds; sigma and pi- bonds; metallic bond. Lewis structure and octet rule. Hybridization and molecular geometry. Resonance. Complex ions, composition and geometry. Intermolecular bonds. London forces. Dipolar forces. Hydrogen bond. Influence of intermolecular bonds on the chemical-physical properties of the substances.
Elements of thermodynamics Open systems, closed systems, isolated systems. State functions. Reversible and irreversible transformations. Isothermal, isobaric, isochoric, and adiabatic transformations. Heat, work, internal energy. Enthalpy and Hess's law. First law of thermodynamics. Entropy and second law of thermodynamics. Free energy and spontaneity of a reaction.
Gaseous state Empirical laws of the gas state. Avogadro's principle. Ideal gas model and equation of state. Gas mixtures, Dalton's law. Partial pressures and volumes, molar fractions.
Chemical reactions Precipitation reactions. Acid-base reactions. Redox reactions. Balance.
Solutions Solubilization process, ideal solutions. Solute concentrations. Properties of ideal solutions, Raoult's law. Colligative properties. Degree of dissociation, van 't Hoff binomial.
Chemical equilibrium Homogeneous and heterogeneous equilibria. Equilibrium constant. Expression of the equilibrium constant. Dependence of the equilibrium constant on temperature. Le Chatelier principle, chemical equilibrium applications.
Solution Equilibria Acid-base equilibria. Ionic product of water. Strength of acids and bases. Buffer solution, acid-base titrations, indicators. Saline hydrolysis. pH calculation. Solubility and Precipitation equilibria. Solubility product. Common ion effect.
Kinetics Speed of reaction and concentration. Reaction order. Activation energy and transition state. Reaction speed and temperature.
Solid state Solid state, properties of the crystalline state, lattice structure, anisotropy. Ionic, covalent, molecular, metallic solids. Metals and alloys.
Stoichiometry Nomenclature. Avogadro number and size. Minimum formula and molecular formula. Balancing a chemical equation. Oxidation numbers and oxidation-reduction reactions. Weight correlations in chemical reactions, percentage yield. Concentration, mixing and dilution of the solutions.
Descriptive inorganic chemistry: Oxides, Anhydrides, Hydroxides, Hydroxyacids, Hydracids, Salts, Halides, Nitrides, Carbides and their main derivatives.
THEORY - M. Silbeberg, Chemistry, McGraw Hill, 3rd Edition - Handouts from the material used in class, present on Moodle; - P. Atkins, L. Jones, L. Laverman - Fundamentals of General Chemistry, second edition - Petrucci, General Chemistry. Modern principles and applications. Piccin
EXERCISES - Exercises in Silbeberg, In Atkins, in Petrucci, texts cited above. - F. Cacace, M. Schiavello, Stoichiometry, Bulzoni Editore - P. Michelin Lausarot, G. A. Vaglio, Stoichiometry for General Chemistry, Piccin - Other: Collection of exam exercises from previous years, available on Moodle.
Dates of beginning and end of teaching activities
At a distance
Module: Organic chemistry
Type of certificate
Scientific Disciplinary Sector Code
Type of Activity
Basic compulsory activities
Objectives of the course
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