Provide the student with the cognitive tools for correct use in the material design phase. In particular, we want to obtain knowledge and correlation between the characteristics of the materials and use in real conditions.
Grouped theoretical topics: - Classes of materials of technological interest and their characterizing properties (mechanical, thermal, electrical properties and relative measurements). - Relationships between microstructure and properties (defects in crystals, solid solutions). - References on heterogeneous balances and state diagrams. - Plastics: polymerization and polymer structure (polyethylene, polypropylene, PVC, PMMA, polyester, phenolic, polyamide, epoxy resins, polyurethanes, silicones, elastomers); property; processing. Degradation mechanisms. - Composite materials: classification. Matrices and reinforcements. Compatibilizers. Fiber glass. Carbon fibers. Aramid fibers. Production and properties. Manufacturing processes. Metal matrix, ceramic matrix and polymer matrix composites. Sandwich structures. Outline of mechanical properties and reinforcement mechanisms. - Metallic materials. Ferrous alloys: cast iron, simple and alloyed steels (for carpentry, stainless, for tools). Ferro-carbon state diagram. Heat treatments of steel (hardening, annealing, normalization). - Corrosion phenomena in metals. Corrosion protection methods. - Materials for electronics. Electrical conduction in metals. Intrinsic semiconductors. Extrinsic semiconductors. Doping. Devices semiconductors. Microelectronics. Semiconductor compounds. Electrical properties of ceramic materials. Dielectric properties. Ceramic materials for capacitors. Ceramic semiconductors. Ferroelectric ceramics. Piezoelectricity. - Glassy Materials: Glasses. Factors that influence the formation of a glass. Electronegativity and type of bond. Viscosity. Thermodynamics of glass formation. Glass transition temperature. Crystallization kinetics and glass formation. Structures and classifications of glass. Metallic glasses. Glass-ceramic.
Specific topics of the course: Introduction to the course. Introduction to the materials being studied and the need to evaluate their properties. Properties of metallic, polymeric and ceramic materials in relation to the structure and types of bonding. Notes on composite materials. Ionic and covalent bond. Metallic bond. Secondary ties. Properties of materials in light of the nature of the bonds. Metal structure. Spatial lattice and unit cells. Crystalline systems and Bravais lattices. Cubic and hexagonal patterns. Atomic packing factors. Miller indices. Comparison between CFC and EC lattice. Polymorphism and allotropy. Elements of X-ray diffraction. Amorphous materials. Solidification and imperfections. Homogeneous and heterogeneous solidification. Energies involved in homogeneous solidification. Crystal growth. Grains. Replacement and interstitial solid solutions. Point defects: holidays and interstitial atoms. C in the Fe lattice: role of APF and forms of the voids. Line defects: dislocations. Burgers vector. Motion of dislocations in plastic deformation. Dislocation motion: analogies. Plastic deformation and role of dislocations. Work hardening. Wheat borders. Edges of twins. Grain size. Mechanical properties. Mechanical reaction of a material to stress: plastic, elastic deformation and breakage. Static and dynamic forces. Mechanical resistance tests: tensile test; nominal stresses and deformations; stress / strain graph; elastic modulus, shear modulus and Poisson modulus; ductility and its measures; stress at break and friction. Effort and real deformations. Examples of tensile tests for different materials. Fracture behavior. Ductile and fragile fracture. Toughness. Fracture in the presence of defects. Test of resilience. Ductile / brittle transition temperature. Hardness and hardness tests. Fatigue behavior. Fatigue tests. Metal creep and creep tests. Thermal properties: conductivity, thermal capacity, linear and volume expansion; transition temperatures. Electrical conductivity: Ohm's law. Primary and secondary metallurgy. Cast iron and steel production. Blast Furnace. Primary and secondary steel industry. Metalworking. Strengthening mechanisms. Work hardening and temperature effect. Grain size control. Strengthening for solid solution. Effect of alloying elements. Notes on wet and dry corrosion. Reduction potentials. Liabilities. Corrosion forms: thinning, pitting, stress corrosion cracking and selective corrosion. Corrosion of iron in a humid environment. Pourbaix diagrams. Outline of polarization curves. Corrosion protection methods: painting; galvanizing; anodizing; cathodic protection. Notes on the design and modification of the environment to reduce corrosion. State diagrams: equilibrium microstructures. Binary state diagrams: complete miscibility in liquid and solid state. Determination of the number of phases, their composition and subscription
W.D. CALLISTER “Scienza e ingegneria dei materiali. Una introduzione”, EdiSES. BERTOLINI: 'Materiali da costruzione. Volume I ' Citta'Studi Edizioni M. LUCCO BORLERA, C. BRISI: 'Tecnologia dei materiali e Chimica Applicata' Levrotto e Bella W.F. SMITH, J.HASHEMI: 'Scienza e tecnologia dei materiali' McGraw-Hill, V. ALUNNO ROSSETTI: 'Il calcestruzzo: Materiali e Tecnologia' McGraw-Hill, A. R. WEST “Solid state Chemistry and its Applications”, John Wiley & Sons W.F. SMITH & J. HASHEMI “Scienza e tecnologia dei materiali”, McGraw-Hill. Dispense del docente
Dates of beginning and end of teaching activities
Objectives of the course
Università degli Studi della Tuscia - Rettorato, Via S.M. in Gradi n.4, 01100 Viterbo, ITALY - Tel. 0761.3571