Educational goals The aim of the course is to provide students with the fundamental concepts of physics, at the same time providing the logical-deductive tools necessary to achieve a full understanding of the issues presented. Students will acquire the basic principles of the scientific method that combines the experimental approach with a mathematical-deductive approach. Particular attention will be paid to the critical and historical analysis of the concepts on which a scientific theory is based.
Expected learning outcomes Knowledge and ability to understand. To have developed the knowledge of the fundamental principles of Physics and of the relative methodologies. Ability to apply knowledge and understanding. Knowing how to use the concepts learned even in contexts different from those presented. Autonomy of judgment. Develop critical analysis skills and be able to solve new problems even if similar to those discussed in class. Communication skills. Students' ability to discuss the implications of concepts presented in class and the possible questions that may emerge from the topics discussed will be stimulated. Learning ability. Being able to discuss fundamental scientific topics of Physics and its applications. This skill will be developed and verified by involving students in oral discussions in the classroom.
Physics (56 hours) Models, theories, laws, measures and uncertainties. Unit of measurement (International System). Description of motion: kinematics in one dimension, kinematics in two dimensions, carriers. Force and mass. Newton's laws. Circular motion. Law of gravitation. Work. Kinetic energy. Power. Conservative forces. Potential energy. Conservation of mechanical energy. Quantity of motion. Rotational motion. Vibrations and waves (harmonic motion, sound). Bodies in balance. Fluids (static, dynamic, viscosity, surface tension). Recalls of: temperature and kinetic theory, heat, principles of thermodynamics, thermal machines, entropy. Electric charge and electric field. Electric potential and electric power; capacity. Dielectrics. Electric currents. Circuits in direct current. Magnetism. Electromagnetic induction and Faraday laws. Magnetic properties of matter. Electromagnetic waves and their spectrum. Light: geometric optics. Wave nature of light (interference, diffraction, spectroscopy, polarization). Optical instruments. Quantum theory and Photoelectric effect. Models of the atom. De Broglie's length and hypothesis. Electronic and atomic force microscopy. Quantum Mechanics and quantum numbers. Radioactive decay. Measurement of doses of ionizing radiation.
Physics Laboratory (16 hours) The experimental method, the experimental measure, the measuring instruments. Units of measurement, units of scale, dimensional analysis. Measurement errors: random and systematic errors. Assessing uncertainties in direct measures. Significant digits. Discrepancy. Errors in repeated measurements: average as best estimate, standard deviation, standard deviation of the mean. Gaussian distribution. Error propagation: sum and differences, products and quotients. Calculating errors for functions of a variable and for functions of multiple variables. Least squares method. Correlation coefficient. Graphs: linear scale, semilogarithmic scale, logarithmic scale. Laboratory experiences: - Theory of Errors - Calorimetry - Use of multimeter and Ohm's Law - Optics